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古希臘人何以偉大(1)(組圖)

來源: 南方日報網絡版     時間: 2019年05月28日 04:34:51
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(《自)(由)(的)(文)(化)(》作)(者)(:克)(里)(斯)(蒂)(安)(·邁)(耶)(譯)(者)(:史)(國)(榮)(出)(版)(社)(:北)(京)(時)(代)(華)(文)(書)(局)(出)(版)(時)(間)(:2015年)(6月)(雅)(典)(衛)(城)(南)(側)(的)(狄)(奧)(尼)(索)(斯)(劇)(場)(,臺)(階)(系)(后)(來)(修)(建)(。悲)(劇)(《波)(斯)(人)(》在)(此)(上)(演)(。  《自)(由)(的)(文)(化)(:古)(希)(臘)(與)(歐)(洲)(的)(起)(源)(》被)(視)(為)(德)(國)(古)(代)(史)(學)(家)(克)(里)(斯)(蒂)(安)(·邁)(耶)(最)(具)(雄)(心)(的)(作)(品)(之)(一)(,因)(為)(探)(索)(的)(筆)(觸)(涵)(蓋)(整)(個)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(,其)(討)(論)(了)(從)(藝)(術)(到)(哲)(學)(,從)(政)(治)(到)(戰)(爭)(等)(一)(系)(列)(問)(題)(。有)(人)(說)(,《自)(由)(的)(文)(化)(》是)(作)(者)(畢)(生)(研)(究)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(的)(灌)(頂)(之)(作)(,敘)(述)(并)(解)(釋)(了)(一)(個)(引)(人)(入)(勝)(的)(故)(事)(。而)(我)(認)(為)(,其)(實)(它)(是)(對)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(的)(一)(次)(巡)(禮)(;說)(它)(是)(文)(化)(的)(朝)(圣)(,亦)(非)(夸)(大)(其)(詞)(。  這)(部)(作)(品)(分)(為)(兩)(大)(部)(分)(。第)(一)(部)(分)(是)(關)(于)(起)(源)(問)(題)(,而)(第)(二)(部)(分)(是)(城)(邦)(世)(界)(的)(崛)(起)(。“起)(源)(問)(題)(”觸)(及)(古)(希)(臘)(與)(歐)(洲)(歷)(史)(的)(關)(系)(,試)(圖)(回)(答)(一)(個)(學)(界)(爭)(論)(不)(已)(的)(問)(題)(:古)(代)(是)(歐)(洲)(的)(史)(前)(史)(還)(是)(歐)(洲)(的)(早)(期)(歷)(史)(。作)(者)(的)(回)(答)(是)(:歐)(洲)(歷)(史)(始)(于)(古)(希)(臘)(。第)(二)(部)(分)(敘)(述)(了)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(的)(形)(成)(、發)(展)(及)(繁)(榮)(。然)(而)(,必)(須)(注)(意)(,正)(如)(作)(者)(自)(己)(所)(說)(,"起)(源)(問)(題)("原)(本)(是)(獨)(立)(的)(一)(卷)(”,它)(對)(古)(代)(與)(歐)(洲)(歷)(史)(關)(系)(的)(探)(討)(并)(不)(深)(入)(,而)(是)(簡)(單)(直)(接)(地)(給)(出)(結)(論)(。“城)(邦)(世)(界)(的)(崛)(起)(”才)(是)(該)(書)(的)(主)(體)(;即)(便)(是)(在)(探)(討)(古)(代)(與)(歐)(洲)(歷)(史)(關)(系)(的)(“起)(源)(問)(題)(”中)(,大)(部)(分)(內)(容)(也)(關)(乎)(古)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(自)(由)(天)(性)(。  用)(“對)(自)(由)(的)(熱)(愛)(”區)(分)(希)(臘)(人)(、野)(蠻)(人)(  《自)(由)(的)(文)(化)(》的)(主)(旨)(在)(于)(闡)(明)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(的)(生)(成)(,作)(者)(恰)(如)(其)(分)(地)(把)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(定)(義)(為)(一)(種)(自)(由)(文)(化)(,因)(為)(這)(種)(文)(化)(負)(載)(著)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(宏)(大)(理)(想)(而)(定)(向)(于)(個)(體)(自)(由)(的)(全)(面)(發)(展)(。在)(那)(種)(文)(化)(里)(,“每)(個)(個)(體)(都)(被)(期)(望)(成)(為)(一)(個)(整)(體)(的)(人)(”,一)(個)(全)(能)(的)(多)(面)(手)(;這)(個)(人)(被)(定)(義)(為)(人)(的)(典)(范)(而)(最)(具)(人)(性)(。因)(此)(,如)(果)(說)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(是)(對)(真)(正)(的)(人)(的)(找)(尋)(,則)(實)(不)(為)(過)(。  這)(樣)(,我)(們)(從)(古)(希)(臘)(人)(這)(里)(有)(力)(地)(見)(證)(了)(“文)(化)(塑)(造)(人)(”這)(一)(最)(基)(本)(的)(認)(信)(。如)(果)(說)(希)(臘)(人)(創)(造)(的)(文)(化)(使)(他)(們)(具)(備)(了)(某)(種)(特)(質)(,那)(是)(因)(為)(,就)(如)(《自)(由)(的)(文)(化)(》的)(作)(者)(表)(明)(的)(,“他)(們)(創)(造)(的)(東)(西)(同)(時)(也)(在)(塑)(造)(著)(他)(們)(,創)(造)(者)(同)(時)(也)(是)(受)(造)(者)(”。但)(一)(個)(問)(題)(是)(,為)(什)(么)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(文)(化)(秉)(承)(了)(自)(由)(品)(質)(?難)(道)(希)(臘)(人)(擁)(有)(一)(種)(與)(生)(俱)(來)(的)(自)(由)(品)(性)(而)(與)(眾)(不)(同)(?必)(須)(看)(到)(,在)(古)(代)(文)(化)(中)(,唯)(有)(古)(希)(臘)(文)(化)(不)(以)(政)(治)(權)(力)(為)(中)(心)(,而)(以)(人)(的)(獨)(立)(、自)(由)(和)(自)(我)(管)(理)(為)(目)(標)(。倘)(使)(我)(們)(承)(認)(文)(化)(與)(人)(的)(互)(動)(性)(,那)(么)(就)(必)(須)(承)(認)(古)(希)(臘)(人)(是)(一)(個)(天)(性)(自)(由)(的)(民)(族)(。公)(元)(前)(472年)(,古)(希)(臘)(悲)(劇)(家)(埃)(斯)(庫)(羅)(斯)(的)(悲)(劇)(《波)(斯)(人)(》在)(雅)(典)(成)(功)(上)(演)(。這)(部)(戲)(劇)(致)(力)(于)(回)(答)(一)(個)(其)(時)(彌)(漫)(在)(世)(人)(心)(中)(的)(普)(遍)(疑)(問)(,“弱)(小)(的)(希)(臘)(城)(邦)(如)(何)(擊)(敗)(龐)(大)(的)(波)(斯)(帝)(國)(,是)(戰)(略)(、勇)(氣)(、技)(巧)(、機)(遇)(,還)(是)(神)(yG的)(護)(佑)(”?悲)(劇)(詩)(人)(通)(過)(戲)(劇)(情)(節)(的)(方)(式)(把)(希)(波)(戰)(爭)(還)(原)(在)(舞)(臺)(上)(,并)(借)(由)(戲)(劇)(人)(物)(的)(對)(話)(清)(晰)(地)(予)(以)(了)(回)(答)(。戲)(劇)(中)(,波)(斯)(國)(王)(薛)(西)(斯)(的)(母)(親)(阿)(托)(薩)((Atossa)從)(噩)(夢)(中)(驚)(醒)(,向)(歌)(隊)(訴)(說)(縈)(繞)(夢)(里)(的)(不)(祥)(故)(事)(。阿)(托)(薩)(夢)(見)(兩)(位)(美)(麗)(無)(瑕)(的)(女)(性)(,一)(位)(穿)(著)(波)(斯)(長)(袍)(,另)(一)(位)(身)(著)(希)(臘)(短)(服)(。顯)(然)(,前)(者)(是)(野)(蠻)(人)(,后)(者)(是)(希)(臘)(人)(。不)(知)(何)(故)(,她)(們)(發)(生)(了)(爭)(吵)(,國)(王)(薛)(西)(斯)(出)(面)(干)(涉)(,把)(繩)(索)(套)(在)(二)(人)(的)(脖)(子)(上)(,一)(個)(女)(子)(順)(從)(了)(繩)(索)(的)(牽)(引)(,而)(另)(一)(個)(則)(竭)(力)(反)(抗)(,并)(把)(薛)(西)(斯)(座)(駕)(的)(軛)(折)(成)(兩)(段)(,無)(地)(自)(容)(的)(薛)(西)(斯)(撕)(碎)(了)(身)(上)(的)(長)(袍)(。  當)(阿)(托)(薩)(問)(及)(誰)(是)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(統)(治)(者)(時)(,卻)(被)(告)(知)(“他)(們)(不)(做)(臣)(民)(”。不)(做)(臣)(民)(“意)(味)(著)(希)(臘)(人)(沒)(有)(統)(治)(者)(,不)(受)(任)(何)(人)(統)(治)(。”既)(然)(如)(此)(,希)(臘)(人)(怎)(能)(抵)(御)(入)(侵)(之)(敵)(?長)(老)(們)(告)(訴)(王)(后)(,“雅)(典)(人)(尚)(且)(摧)(毀)(了)(大)(流)(士)(的)(精)(兵)(良)(將)(”。在)(退)(場)(戲)(中)(,但)(見)(薛)(西)(斯)(衣)(衫)(襤)(褸)(,孤)(身)(一)(人)(回)(到)(波)(斯)(。阿)(托)(薩)(認)(為)(,希)(臘)(艦)(隊)(擊)(敗)(波)(斯)(海)(軍)(是)(神)(的)(護)(佑)(,薛)(西)(斯)(不)(應)(對)(此)(負)(責)(。可)(是)(,埃)(斯)(庫)(羅)(斯)(在)(悲)(劇)(中)(嚴)(正)(地)(指)(出)(,薛)(西)(斯)(傲)(慢)(狂)(妄)(,因)(為)(他)(試)(圖)(將)(希)(臘)(人)(和)(野)(蠻)(人)(這)(兩)(個)(本)(應)(獨)(立)(的)(民)(族)(合)(二)(為)(一)(。亞)(洲)(和)(歐)(洲)(乃)(神)(定)(的)(自)(然)(秩)(序)(,任)(何)(突)(破)(其)(界)(限)(的)(努)(力)(都)(是)(對)(神)(的)(褻)(瀆)(。  波)(斯)(人)(對)(希)(臘)(的)(統)(治)(企)(圖)(為)(何)(遭)(到)(了)(阻)(撓)(?埃)(斯)(庫)(羅)(斯)(列)(舉)(了)(一)(長)(串)(波)(斯)(人)(和)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(不)(同)(特)(征)(,并)(試)(圖)(以)(此)(解)(釋)(戰)(爭)(結)(果)(。但)(一)(如)(邁)(耶)(所)(說)(,“最)(根)(本)(和)(關)(鍵)(的)(是)(,就)(像)(阿)(托)(薩)(夢)(中)(的)(兩)(位)(女)(性)(一)(樣)(,雅)(典)(人)(不)(肯)(向)(任)(何)(人)(屈)(服)(,他)(們)(不)(想)(讓)(自)(由)(生)(活)(發)(生)(改)(變)(”。埃)(斯)(庫)(羅)(斯)(在)(戲)(劇)(中)(回)(憶)(了)(薩)(拉)(米)(海)(戰)(中)(希)(臘)(人)(曾)(經)(吶)(喊)(過)(的)(戰)(斗)(口)(號)(:“前)(進)(呀)(,希)(臘)(的)(男)(兒)(!你)(們)(要)(為)(自)(己)(而)(戰)(。”“為)(自)(己)(而)(戰)(”乃)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(信)(念)(,也)(是)(埃)(斯)(庫)(羅)(斯)(對)(波)(斯)(戰)(爭)(的)(原)(因)(給)(出)(的)(結)(論)(性)(言)(辭)(。  無)(獨)(有)(偶)(,大)(約)(一)(代)(人)(的)(時)(間)(以)(后)(,希)(羅)(多)(德)(在)(《歷)(史)(》第)(七)(卷)(中)(也)(表)(達)(了)(完)(全)(相)(同)(的)(觀)(點)(。我)(們)(被)(告)(知)(,在)(討)(伐)(希)(臘)(之)(前)(,國)(王)(薛)(西)(斯)(對)(波)(斯)(水)(師)(進)(行)(了)(一)(次)(檢)(閱)(,大)(呼)(過)(癮)(,于)(是)(問)(流)(亡)(的)(斯)(巴)(達)(國)(王)(戴)(瑪)(拉)(托)(斯)(,“希)(臘)(人)(是)(否)(有)(力)(量)(抵)(抗)(他)(”?戴)(瑪)(拉)(托)(斯)(解)(釋)(道)(,希)(臘)(人)(的)(貧)(窮)(是)(天)(然)(的)(結)(果)(,但)(憑)(借)(法)(律)(和)(智)(慧)(則)(習)(得)(了)(勇)(敢)(的)(美)(德)(,據)(此)(他)(們)(不)(會)(屈)(從)(任)(何)(奴)(役)(。在)(希)(羅)(多)(德)(看)(來)(,追)(求)(自)(由)(的)(秉)(性)(是)(希)(臘)(人)(勝)(利)(的)(不)(二)(法)(門)(。他)(在)(《歷)(史)(》中)(宣)(稱)(“對)(自)(由)(的)(熱)(愛)(”是)(希)(臘)(人)(與)(野)(蠻)(人)(的)(區)(分)(標)(志)(。  巴)(比)(倫)(人)(自)(視)(“世)(界)(中)(心)(”,古)(希)(臘)(人)(不)(然)(  我)(們)(無)(須)(列)(舉)(更)(多)(的)(例)(子)(來)(說)(明)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(自)(由)(品)(性)(。在)(“歐)(洲)(大)(陸)(的)(構)(成)(”一)(章)(中)(,克)(里)(斯)(蒂)(安)(·邁)(耶)(簡)(要)(地)(描)(述)(了)(歐)(亞)(兩)(洲)(的)(概)(念)(在)(人)(類)(知)(識)(體)(系)(中)(的)(出)(現)(及)(形)(成)(,指)(出)(“如)(果)(不)(是)(希)(臘)(人)(,歐)(亞)(大)(陸)(不)(會)(成)(為)(兩)(個)(分)(離)(的)(大)(洲)(”。地)(球)(在)(概)(念)(上)(被)(劃)(分)(為)(幾)(大)(洲)(以)(及)(各)(自)(概)(念)(蘊)(涵)(的)(意)(義)(均)(出)(自)(古)(希)(臘)(人)(的)(知)(識)(貢)(獻)(。  公)(元)(前)(6世)(紀)(末)(期)(,希)(臘)(世)(界)(的)(知)(識)(氛)(圍)(令)(人)(難)(忘)(地)(展)(示)(了)(理)(論)(與)(實)(踐)(的)(結)(合)(,哲)(學)(家)(阿)(那)(克)(西)(曼)(德)(經)(由)(觀)(察)(繪)(制)(出)(第)(一)(張)(世)(界)(地)(圖)(,而)(他)(的)(學)(生)(赫)(卡)(泰)(烏)(斯)(則)(完)(善)(了)(它)(。從)(那)(里)(,我)(們)(看)(見)(了)(歐)(洲)(和)(亞)(洲)(。可)(以)(肯)(定)(,正)(是)(希)(臘)(人)(首)(先)(認)(識)(到)(了)(歐)(亞)(兩)(洲)(的)(區)(別)(,并)(以)(此)(為)(基)(礎)(把)(世)(界)(一)(分)(為)(二)(。歐)(洲)(和)(亞)(洲)(不)(僅)(被)(想)(象)(為)(同)(等)(大)(小)(,而)(且)(南)(半)(球)(被)(視)(為)(北)(半)(球)(的)(鏡)(像)(,因)(而)(地)(球)(東)(西)(南)(北)(對)(稱)(。所)(以)(,地)(球)(是)(完)(整)(的)(圓)(。柏)(拉)(圖)(在)(《斐)(多)(》中)(形)(象)(地)(把)(地)(球)(比)(作)(池)(塘)(,人)(類)(像)(青)(蛙)(或)(螞)(蟻)(一)(樣)(環)(繞)(在)(它)(的)(周)(圍)(;而)(在)(《蒂)(邁)(歐)(篇)(》里)(,柏)(拉)(圖)(強)(調)(說)(,宇)(宙)(乃)(一)(個)(包)(羅)(萬)(象)(的)(圓)(形)(,從)(中)(心)(到)(宇)(宙)(的)(任)(一)(邊)(緣)(都)(在)(距)(離)(上)(相)(等)(,因)(此)(體)(現)(了)(相)(似)(原)(理)(,沒)(有)(中)(心)(和)(邊)(緣)(的)(沖)(突)(,一)(切)(事)(物)(和)(諧)(共)(處)(。據)(此)(,任)(何)(事)(物)(都)(沒)(有)(特)(權)(。  希)(臘)(人)(對)(世)(界)(的)(認)(知)(與)(古)(埃)(及)(和)(巴)(比)(倫)(全)(然)(不)(同)(。古)(巴)(比)(倫)(人)(繪)(制)(了)(《巴)(比)(倫)(世)(界)(地)(圖)(》。從)(該)(地)(圖)(發)(現)(,巴)(比)(倫)(城)(位)(于)(地)(球)(的)(中)(心)(,地)(圖)(最)(中)(央)(有)(個)(圓)(點)(,它)(被)(視)(為)(世)(界)(中)(心)(的)(肚)(臍)(。古)(巴)(比)(倫)(人)(的)(信)(念)(是)(,巴)(比)(倫)(城)(為)(世)(界)(的)(中)(心)(,世)(界)(中)(心)(的)(外)(圍)(是)(環)(繞)(的)(“鹽)(海)(”。可)(在)(希)(臘)(人)(看)(來)(,無)(論)(巴)(比)(倫)(還)(是)(希)(臘)(都)(不)(是)(世)(界)(中)(心)(。  顯)(然)(,古)(希)(臘)(人)(沒)(有)(按)(照)(以)(希)(臘)(為)(中)(心)(的)(方)(式)(思)(考)(世)(界)(,盡)(管)(有)(希)(臘)(人)(認)(為)(德)(爾)(斐)(是)(世)(界)(的)(肚)(臍)(。就)(知)(識)(傳)(統)(而)(論)(,希)(臘)(人)(向)(東)(方)(學)(習)(,但)(他)(們)(對)(世)(界)(的)(認)(知)(徹)(底)(打)(破)(了)(以)(民)(族)(主)(義)(為)(中)(心)(的)(東)(方)(傳)(統)(,以)(自)(己)(的)(方)(式)(觀)(察)(世)(界)(,以)(自)(己)(的)(方)(式)(提)(出)(希)(臘)(式)(問)(題)(,并)(形)(成)(希)(臘)(式)(的)(生)(活)(觀)(念)(。  而)(這)(,或)(許)(可)(以)(解)(釋)(自)(由)(文)(化)(的)(起)(源)(。(下)(轉)(B13版)()
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